Toby has worked for almost 30 years on the political ecology of Amazon development and conservation and more specifically on the evolution of smallholder settlement, land use and resource management. Within this broader field his work has focused on grassroots movements, the community-based management of floodplain fisheries and upland forests and on the integration of these informal management initiatives into formal policy and institutional arrangements for co-management of natural resources. For most of this time he has also been a professor at the Núcleo de Altos Estudos Amazônicos (NAEA) of the Federal University of Pará and more recently a professor in the Graduate Program in Society, Nature and Development of the Federal University of Western Pará (UFOPA), where he teaches courses on the political ecology of Amazon development and conservation.

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