The province of West Papua in Indonesia is one of the poorest yet most highly forested in Indonesia. Indigenous Papuans, many of whose rights to land and resources are not recognized formally by Indonesian law, comprise the majority of the poor. Can poverty in West Papua be alleviated in a way that recognizes the rights of indigenous Papuans while preserving the natural environment? The European Forest Institute (EFI) and Institut Penelitian Inovasi Bumi (INOBU), a Earth Innovation Institute's sister organization in Indonesia are trialing an innovative, new approach for improving land and resource governance at the jurisdictional level to ensure that commodities like palm oil are produced sustainably, equitably, and in a way that recognizes and respects the rights of indigenous Papuans. At the center of this strategy is a monitoring platform, developed by INOBU, that will help recognize progress towards sustainability by all stakeholders in a jurisdiction.